Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting both children and adults that is present in multiple settings and impacting on daily life. Frequent referral issues are not paying attention, difficulty organizing work, excessive talking, and fidgeting.
The DSM-5 classification system lists three primary presentations of ADHD.
ADHD primarily inattentive type:
• Fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes
• Has difficulty sustaining attention
• Does not appear to listen
• Struggles to follow through on instructions
• Has difficulty with organization
• Avoids or dislikes tasks requiring a lot of thinking
• Loses things
• Is easily distracted
• Is forgetful in daily activities
• Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in chair
• Has difficulty remaining seated
• Runs about or climbs excessively in children; extreme restlessness in adults
• Difficulty engaging in activities quietly
• Acts as if driven by a motor; adults will often feel inside like they are driven by a motor
• Talks excessively
• Blurts out answers before questions have been completed
• Difficulty waiting or taking turns
• Interrupts or intrudes upon others
Combined inattentive & hyperactive-impulsive presentation:
• Has symptoms from both of the above presentations.
There are many factors that can contribute to ADHD, although heredity seems to be the largest contributor. Other factors such as difficulties during pregnancy, brain injuries, lead poisoning, and other problems can contribute to ADHD as well; however, in many instances, the cause of ADHD is largely unknown.
Many people display some levels of inattention at one time or another in their lives. This is not the same as ADHD. Likewise, there are other situations that can mimic ADHD including disinterest in an activity, learning problems, and developmental status of the child to name a few. At our practice, we recommend comprehensive ADHD Testing before diagnosing a problem such as ADHD.
At Silber Psychological Services, we can provide assistance with behavioral manifestations of ADHD, information regarding organization difficulties, and strategies to bring about better self-control. For some children with ADHD, social skills training may be a useful adjunct when social or behavioral manifestations are present.